My thoughts on IBM buying Red Hat for $34 billion

It was just announced that IBM bought Red Hat for $34 billion in cash. Wow!

I remember taking the bus to the local bookstore to buy the Red Hat Linux 5.2 CD-ROMs. It must have been 1998. Ten years later, Red Hat acted as an inspiration for starting my own Open Source business.

While it's a bit sad to see the largest, independent Open Source company get acquired, it's also great news for Open Source. IBM has been a strong proponent and contributor to Open Source, and its acquisition of Red Hat should help accelerate Open Source even more. IBM has the ability to introduce Open Source to more organizations in a way that Red Hat never could.

Just a few weeks ago, I wrote that 2018 is a breakout year for Open Source businesses. The acquisition of Red Hat truly cements that, as this is one of the largest acquisitions in the history of technology. It's very exciting to see that the largest technology companies in the world are getting comfortable with Open Source as part of their mainstream business.

Thirty-four billion is a lot of money, but IBM had to do something big to get back into the game. Public cloud gets all the attention, but hybrid cloud is just now setting up for growth. It was only last year that both Amazon Web Services and Google partnered with VMware on hybrid cloud offerings, so IBM isn't necessarily late to the hybrid cloud game. Both IBM and Red Hat are big believers in hybrid cloud, so this acquisition makes sense and helps IBM compete with Amazon, Google and Microsoft in terms of hybrid cloud.

In short, this should be great for Open Source, it should be good for IBM, and it should be healthy for the cloud wars.

PS: I predict that Jim Whitehurst becomes IBM's CEO in less than five years.

A book for decoupled Drupal practitioners

The cover of the Decoupled Drupal book

Drupal has evolved significantly over the course of its long history. When I first built the Drupal project eighteen years ago, it was a message board for my friends that I worked on in my spare time. Today, Drupal runs two percent of all websites on the internet with the support of an open-source community that includes hundreds of thousands of people from all over the world.

Today, Drupal is going through another transition as its capabilities and applicability continue to expand beyond traditional websites. Drupal now powers digital signage on university campuses, in-flight entertainment systems on commercial flights, interactive kiosks on cruise liners, and even pushes live updates to the countdown clocks in the New York subway system. It doesn't stop there. More and more, digital experiences are starting to encompass virtual reality, augmented reality, chatbots, voice-driven interfaces and Internet of Things applications. All of this is great for Drupal, as it expands its market opportunity and long-term relevance.

Several years ago, I began to emphasize the importance of an API-first approach for Drupal as part of the then-young phenomenon of decoupled Drupal. Now, Drupal developers can count on JSON API, GraphQL and CouchDB, in addition to a range of surrounding tools for developing the decoupled applications described above. These decoupled Drupal advancements represent a pivotal point in Drupal's history.

Decoupled Drupal sites
A few examples of organizations that use decoupled Drupal.

Speaking of important milestones in Drupal's history, I remember the first Drupal book ever published in 2005. At the time, good information on Drupal was hard to find. The first Drupal book helped make the project more accessible to new developers and provided both credibility and reach in the market. Similarly today, decoupled Drupal is still relatively new, and up-to-date literature on the topic can be hard to find. In fact, many people don't even know that Drupal supports decoupled architectures. This is why I'm so excited about the upcoming publication of a new book entitled Decoupled Drupal in Practice, written by Preston So. It will give decoupled Drupal more reach and credibility.

When Preston asked me to write the foreword for the book, I jumped at the chance because I believe his book will be an important next step in the advancement of decoupled Drupal. I've also been working with Preston So for a long time. Preston is currently Director of Research and Innovation at Acquia and a globally respected expert on decoupled Drupal. Preston has been involved in the Drupal community since 2007, and I first worked with him directly in 2012 on the Spark initiative to improve Drupal's editorial user experience. Preston has been researching, writing and speaking on the topic of decoupled Drupal since 2015, and had a big impact on my thinking on decoupled Drupal, on Drupal's adoption of React, and on decoupled Drupal architectures in the Drupal community overall.

To show the value that this book offers, you can read exclusive excerpts of three chapters from Decoupled Drupal in Practice on the Acquia blog and at the Acquia Developer Center. It is available for preorder today on Amazon, and I encourage my readers to pick up a copy!

Congratulations on your book, Preston!

Acquia's new European headquarters

While Acquia's global headquarters are in Boston, we have fourteen offices all over the world. Last week, we moved our European headquarters to a larger space in Reading, UK. We've been steadily growing in Europe, and the new Reading office now offers room for 120 employees. It's an exciting move. Here are a few photos:

Reading office
Reading office
Reading office
Reading office

Redesigning a website using CSS Grid and Flexbox

For the last 15 years, I've been using floats for laying out a web pages on This approach to layout involves a lot of trial and error, including hours of fiddling with widths, max-widths, margins, absolute positioning, and the occasional calc() function.

I recently decided it was time to redesign my site, and decided to go all-in on CSS Grid and Flexbox. I had never used them before but was surprised by how easy they were to use. After all these years, we finally have a good CSS layout system that eliminates all the trial-and-error.

I don't usually post tutorials on my blog, but decided to make an exception.

What is our basic design?

The overall layout of the homepage for is shown below. The page consists of two sections: a header and a main content area. For the header, I use CSS Flexbox to position the site name next to the navigation. For the main content area, I use CSS Grid Layout to lay out the article across 7 columns.

Css page layout

Creating a basic responsive header with Flexbox

Flexbox stands for the Flexible Box Module and allows you to manage "one-dimensional layouts". Let me further explain that by using an real example.

Defining a flex container

First, we define a simple page header in HTML:

<div id="header">
  <div class="title">Site title</div>
  <div class="navigation">Navigation</div>

To turn this in to a Flexbox layout, simply give the container the following CSS property:

#header {
  display: flex;

By setting the display property to flex, the #header element becomes a flex container, and its direct children become flex items.

Css flexbox container vs items

Setting the flex container's flow

The flex container can now determine how the items are laid out:

#header {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: row;

flex-direction: row; will place all the elements in a single row:

Css flexbox direction row

And flex-direction: column; will place all the elements in a single column:

Css flexbox direction column

This is what we mean with a "one-dimensional layout". We can lay things out horizontally (row) or vertically (column), but not both at the same time.

Aligning a flex item

#header {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: row;
  justify-content: space-between;

Finally, the justify-content property is used to horizontally align or distribute the Flexbox items in their flex container. Different values exist but justify-content: space-between will maximize the space between the site name and navigation. Different values exist such as flex-start, space-between, center, and more.

Css flexbox justify content

Making a Flexbox container responsive

Thanks to Flexbox, making the navigation responsive is easy. We can change the flow of the items in the container using only a single line of CSS. To make the items flow differently, all we need to do is change or overwrite the flex-direction property.

Css flexbox direction row vs column

To stack the navigation below the site name on a smaller device, simply change the direction of the flex container using a media query:

@media all and (max-width: 900px) {
  #header {
    flex-direction: column;

On devices that are less than 900 pixels wide, the menu will be rendered as follows:

Css flexbox direction column

Flexbox make it really easy to build responsive layouts. I hope you can see why I prefer using it over floats.

Laying out articles with CSS Grid

Flexbox deals with layouts in one dimension at the time ― either as a row or as a column. This is in contrast to CSS Grid Layout, which allows you to use rows and columns at the same time. In this next section, I'll explain how I use CSS Grid to make the layout of my articles more interesting.

Css grid layout

For our example, we'll use the following HTML code:

  <h1>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet</h1>
  <p class="description">Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium.</p>
  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>
  <figure class="right">
   <img src="./image.jpg">
   <figcaption>Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.</figcaption>
  <p>Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt.</p>
    Some meta data
    Some meta data
    Some meta data

Simply put, CSS Grid Layout allows you to define columns and rows. Those columns and rows make up a grid, much like an Excel spreadsheet or an HTML table. Elements can be placed onto the grid. You can place an element in a specific cell, or an element can span multiple cells across different rows and different columns.

We apply a grid layout to the entire article and give it 7 columns:

article {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 200px 10px minmax(320px, 640px) 10px 200px 1fr;

The first statement, display: grid, sets the article to be a grid container.

The second statement grid-template-columns defines the different columns in our grid. In our example, we define a grid with seven columns. The middle column is defined as minmax(320px, 640px), and will hold the main content of the article. minmax(320px, 640px) means that the column can stretch from 320 pixels to 640 pixels, which helps to make it responsive.

On each side of the main content section there are three columns. Column 3 and column 5 provide a 10 pixel padding. Column 2 and columns 6 are defined to be 200 pixels wide and can be used for metadata or for allowing an image to extend beyond the width of the main content.

The outer columns are defined as 1fr, and act as margins as well. 1fr stands for fraction or fractional unit. The width of the factional units is computed by the browser. The browser will take the space that is left after what is taken by the fixed-width columns and divide it by the number of fractional units. In this case we defined two fractional units, one for each of the two outer columns. The two outer columns will be equal in size and make sure that the article is centered on the page. If the browser is 1440 pixels wide, the fixed columns will take up 1020 pixels (640 + 10 + 10 + 180 + 180). This means there is 420 pixels left (1440 - 1020). Because we defined two fractional units, column 1 and column 2 should be 210 pixels wide each (420 divided by 2).

Css grid layout columns

While we have to explicitly declare the columns, we don't have to define the rows. The CSS Grid Layout system will automatically create a row for each direct child of our grid container article.

Css grid layout rows

Now we have the grid defined, we have to assign content elements to their location in the grid. By default, the CSS Grid Layout system has a flow model; it will automatically assign content to the next open grid cell. Most likely, you'll want to explicitly define where the content goes:

article > * {
  grid-column: 4 / -4;

The code snippet above makes sure that all elements that are a direct child of article start at the 4th column line of the grid and end at the 4th column line from the end. To understand that syntax, I have to explain you the concept of column lines or grid lines:

Css grid layout column lines

By using grid-column: 4 / -4, all elements will be displayed in the "main column" between column line 4 and -4.

However, we want to overwrite that default for some of the content elements. For example, we might want to show metadata next to the content or we might want images to be wider. This is where CSS Grid Layout really shines. To make our image take up the entire width we'll just tell it span from the first to the last column line:

article > figure {
  grid-column: 1 / -1;

To put the metadata left from the main content, we write:

#main article > footer {
  grid-column: 2 / 3;
  grid-row: 2 / 4;
Css grid layout placement

I hope you enjoyed reading this tutorial and that you are encouraged to give Flexbox and Grid Layouts a try in your next project.