I believe that the "digitalization" of the world is a "megatrend" that will continue for decades. On the one hand, organizations are shifting their businesses online, often inventing new ways to do business. On the other hand, customers are expecting a better and smarter user experience online.

This has led to two important sub-trends: (1) the number of sites an organization is creating and managing is growing at a rapid clip, (2) so is the underlying complexity of each website.

Forrester Research recently surveyed large enterprises about their website portfolio and found that on average they manage 268 properties across various channels. On top of that, each website is becoming more and more advanced. They evolved from simple HTML pages to dynamic websites to digital experience platforms that need to integrate with many other business systems. The combination of these two trends -- increasing number of sites and the growing complexity of each site -- poses real challenges to most organizations.

At Acquia, we are seeing this explosion of websites in the enterprise every day. Many organizations have different websites for different brands and products, want different websites for each country or region they operate in, or offer separate portals for their affiliates, dealers, agents or franchises. We're also seeing organizations, small and large, operate a large number of marketing campaign websites. These organizations aren't focused on scaling back their online properties but rather how best to manage them over time.

I outlined this trend and its challenges almost five years ago (see Acquia product strategy and vision) and most of it is still relevant today, if not more relevant. In this blog post, I want to give you an update and share some lessons learned.

Current situation

Most larger organizations run many different types of websites. It's not unusual for a small organization to have ten websites and for a large organization to have hundreds of websites. Some of Acquia's largest customers operate thousands of websites.

Acquia cloud site factory many sites

Most organizations struggle to manage their growing portfolio of digital properties. You'd be surprised how many organizations have more than 20 different content management systems in use. Often this means that different teams are responsible for them and that they are hosted on different hosting environments. It is expensive, creates unnecessary security risks, poses governance challenges, leads to brand inconsistency, makes it difficult to create a unified customer experience, and more. It costs large organizations millions of dollars a year.

Acquia cloud site factory many platforms

Drupal's unfair advantage

When managing many sites, Drupal has an unfair advantage in that it scales from simple to complex easily. That scalability, coupled with a vast ecosystem of modules, elevate Drupal from a single site point solution to a platform on which you can build almost any kind of site: a brand site, a corporate website, a customer support community, a commerce website, an intranet, etc. You name it.

This is in contrast to many of Drupal's competitors that are either point solutions (e.g. SharePoint is mainly used for intranets) or whose complexity and cost don't lend themselves to managing many sites (e.g. Adobe Experience Manager and Sitecore are expensive solutions for a quick marketing campaign site, while WordPress can be challenging for building complex websites). So the first thing people can do is to standardize on Drupal as a platform for all of their site needs.

Acquia cloud site factory many drupals

By standardizing on Drupal, organizations can simplify training, reduce maintenance costs, streamline security and optimize internal resources – all without sacrificing quality or requirements. Standardizing on Drupal certainly doesn't mean every single site needs to be on Drupal. Transitioning from 20 different systems to 3 still translates into dramatic cost savings.

The Acquia advantage

Once an organization decides to standardize on Drupal, the question is how best to manage all these sites? In 2013 we launched Acquia Cloud Site Factory (ACSF), a scalable enterprise-grade multi-site management platform that helps organizations to easily create, deploy and govern all their sites. Today, some of Acquia's biggest customers use ACSF to manage hundreds of sites - in fact on average an ACSF customer is currently managing 170 websites within their Site Factory platform and that number is growing rapidly.

Acquia commissioned Forrester Research to analyze the benefits to organizations who have unified their sites on a single platform. Forrester found that moving to a single platform dramatically reduced site development and support costs, conserved IT and marketing resources, and improved standardization, governance and scalability — all while accelerating time-to-market and the delivery of better digital experiences.

One of the things we've learned is that a complete multi-site management solution needs to include advanced tools for both developers and content managers. The following image illustrates the different layers of a complete multi-site management solution:

Acquia cloud site factory solution stack
The different layers of the Acquia Cloud Site Factory solution stack.

Let's go through these individually from the bottom up.

Infrastructure management

Consider an organization that currently has 50 websites, and plans to add 10-15 more sites every year. With ACSF these sites run on a platform that is scalable, secure and highly reliable. This infrastructure also allows hardware resources to be logically isolated based on the site's needs as well as scaled up or down to meet any ad-hoc traffic spikes. These capabilities enable organizations to simplify multi-site management efforts and eliminate operational headaches.

Code management

If this organization with 50 sites had individual codebases for each site, that would be 50 disparate codebases to manage. With ACSF, the underlying code can be shared and managed in one central place but the content, configuration, and creative look-and-feel can be catered to each individual sites' needs. ACSF also enable developers to easily add or remove features from their codebases for individual sites. ACSF also comes with tools to automate the process of rolling out updates across all their sites.

Site management

Organizations with many sites also need efficient ways to manage and govern them effectively; from developer tools such as Git, Travis, or Behat that enable them to build, test and maintain sites, to tools for non-developers to quickly clone and spin up sites using site templates defined by a brand manager or a digital design team. ACSF enables customers to effortlessly manage all their sites from a single intuitive dashboard. Developers can create groups of users as well as sites allowing certain users to manage their dedicated domain of sites without stepping over other sites. Non-technical content managers can quickly spin up new sites by cloning existing ones they have access to and updating their configuration, content and look-and-feel. These features allow organizations to launch sites at unprecedented speed inherently improving their overall time to market.

Content sharing

Write once, publish anywhere. We learned from customers managing multiple sites that one thing they often need is the ability to easily share content between sites. For example, if an organization has a privacy policy that needs to be updated, it doesn't make sense to update all their 50 sites individually. There needs to be an easier way to discover existing content that can be repurposed across other sites as well as the ability to author new content once within a platform and deliver it to other sites as needed.


Finally, I should mention personalization. For a few years now we have been developing Acquia Lift. Acquia Lift builds unified customer profiles across all your websites, and uses that information to deliver real-time, contextual, and personalized experiences. For instance, if the organization in the above example had 50 websites for each of their 50 different products, Acquia Lift can present relevant content to its users as they browse across these different sites. This enables organizations to convert anonymous site visitors into known customers and establish a meaningful engagement between them.


I believe that the "multi-sites era" will continue to accelerate; not only will we see more sites, but every site will become increasingly complex. Organizations need to think about how to efficiently manage their website portfolio. If you're not thinking ahead, you're falling behind.


Kristof Van Tomme (not verified):

If we try to address the digital experience platform explosion with sites in a centralised platform architecture, I agree that Drupal is especially well positioned. I am however seeing a strong push from the developer community to move away from monolithic systems. Where digital deliverables no longer need to be stand-alone sites.

The digital experience platform explosion can also be addressed using a microservice architecture in which an organisation creates a number of loosely coupled APIs that are glued together using frontend code into the different digital deliverables. An approach much preferred by most developers who rather write code than click configuration forms. A lot of developers just want to have fun with new cutting edge JS libraries. The verdict is still out on the long term effects of such an architecture, e.g. I think there could be serious maintenance issues. Regardless, there is a strong trend in that direction.

I can imagine an important place for Drupal as an editorial hub in such a system, but I'm not sure if it's the most effective to build all digital deliverables as stand-alone Drupal sites.

What is your opinion about the microservice architecture and what do you think is the place Drupal can have in it?

Is this risk sufficiently mitigated by a headless architecture that allows us to create digital deliverables that use Drupal for data and backend business logic?

Ryan (not verified):

@Kristof - I agree with the strong trend towards a microservices architecture. I've seen many companies go towards this API-first approach for both internal and external services as a means to faster scalability and better agility.

I don't think this jeopardizes the position Drupal has nor do I think Drupal necessarily acts as a monolithic entity. The beautiful thing about Drupal is that it be just a CMS and it can also deliver the experience. I think what you'll see in the next few years is a trend towards using a stable CMS structure to build all of your content first but decouple the front-end devices separately. This allows companies (and developers) to pick and choose what sorts of frameworks they develop on for different use cases, devices, etc.

With the "decoupled" movement, devices become subscribers to the CMS but pick and choose how to render the content. They have their own manifest but the manifest is populated based on a core system - such as Drupal. With Drupal, you also get the beauty of its APIs to handle the different business logic you talk about. For example, if a user hits a device, the device can ask Drupal "I have this specific user who we've seen before. What do I show them?". Drupal would then call a separate service that has business logic behind it to offer content that is personalized to this user (Acquia Lift in this scenario). Drupal then talks back to the device and says "Hey, since we have data on what this user looks at, we think that this is the best content to show them."

Since the end device has its own manifest and can render the content how it pleases, developers would still be able to play with different libraries, frameworks, and a "decoupled state of mind" without losing the integrity of the backend system.

The problem enterprises face is exactly what you've described: people want to play with new stuff. They've done this for years and now they have 100's of different systems they need to look after. With something like the above as well as Dries's thoughts, companies can reduce the complexity and cost of operating their backend structure while still retaining the flexibility and speed they need on the frontend to deliver that experience - with whatever new shiny there is.

Both parties are happy in the long run.


Kristof: great comment and very important discussion! I'll reply with a blog post in the next couple of weeks. Subscribe to my blog if you don't want to miss it (see footer).

Ruben Teijeiro (not verified):

Totally agree with you Kristof.

I have been discussing the possibility to build a complete solution for Marketing Automation in Drupal here in Tieto, my actual company.

It seems that there are applications and services like HubSpot or Marketo that solve only just part of the problem. On the other hand there are platforms or CMS like Adobe Experience Management, EpiServer or WordPress that provide tools and plugins with integration with 3rd-party services that help to identify your visitors and display specific content campaigns but still it's not a complete experience.

I think we have a good chance now to make the difference and show the capabilities of Drupal in Marketing Automation. Not sure how is the status of Acquia Lift and all its capabilities, but maybe it's a good starting point to build the solution, maybe in Drupal 8? Let's see.

I would like to continue this discussion in Barcelona so I created a BoF for people interested on joining: https://events.drupal.org/barcelona2015/bofs/marketing-automation-drupa…

See you there!

Kristof Van Tomme (not verified):

Thank you for the reply Dries and Ryan! This is a discussion I've been having with a lot of people, recently mostly in relation with the rise of Google's Go language. And I think that Drupal architects need a good answer when this question arises.

I think that there are plenty of organisations that have accumulated an unmaintainable mess, both on the microservice and the Drupal/CMS end of the spectrum. I personally believe that the best solution will be a hybrid between the 2 architectures, somewhere in between decentralised and centralised data models.